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University of Trier
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Members
Total: 4 members
Latest Publications
Journal Article
Psychoneuroendocrinology
Published: 01 July 2024 in Psychoneuroendocrinology

Psychosocial stress modulates social cognition and behavior in humans. One potentially mediating factor is cortisol as part of the human endocrine stress response. With a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subject study design, we tested possible dose-dependent effects of hydrocortisone (0 mg, 5 mg and 20 mg) in 85 healthy males. During a socio-economic decision-making task we measured trust, trustworthiness, sharing, punishment, and non-social risk behavior. Social value orientation (SVO) was also assessed. We observed significantly lower levels of punishment after hydrocortisone, especially in the 20 mg group. Drug-induced salivary cortisol correlated negatively with punishment behavior. None of the other facets of social behavior or the SVO were affected by hydrocortisone. Our results suggest that hydrocortisone reduces the propensity to punish unfair behavior. Future studies are needed to further disentangle the role played by various psychobiological mechanisms within the stress response as well as their complex interplay on social behavior and cognition.

ACS Style

Julia Strojny; Bernadette von Dawans; Hartmut Schächinger; Gregor Domes. Hydrocortisone reduces altruistic punishment in healthy men. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2024, 165, 107027 .

AMA Style

Julia Strojny, Bernadette von Dawans, Hartmut Schächinger, Gregor Domes. Hydrocortisone reduces altruistic punishment in healthy men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2024; 165 ():107027.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Julia Strojny; Bernadette von Dawans; Hartmut Schächinger; Gregor Domes. 2024. "Hydrocortisone reduces altruistic punishment in healthy men." Psychoneuroendocrinology 165, no. : 107027.

Journal Article
Soil Biology and Biochemistry
Published: 01 June 2024 in Soil Biology and Biochemistry

Soil organic matter (SOM) plays a central role for both the C cycle and soil functions. Plants provide the input and heterotrophic (micro)organisms are essential for the turnover. Microbial metabolism links matter and energy fluxes and generates the highest energy turnover dynamics in SOM because the organisms need both energy and matter for maintenance and growth. In this perspectives paper, we evaluate the knowledge on thermodynamic approaches potentially applicable to study the turnover of organic matter in the soil system. Thermodynamics is essential for understanding organic matter turnover in soil as turnover and storage are controlled by the energy supply to, and consumption by, microbes. Instead of just comparing the heat of combustion of compounds without considering microbial anabolism, we need to apply conventional thermodynamic state variables that can be either estimated using established thermodynamic equations, or measured empirically in soil. In particular, we can follow and quantify overall changes of enthalpies by calorimetry. Here, we suggest to apply a thermodynamic concept with the related experimental approaches of calo(respiro)metry and turnover mass balances including biomass formation. This enables us to better interpret and understand the highly variable carbon use efficiency (CUE) in a multi-substrate system such as soil and to relate this to energy use efficiency (EUE). Combining the experimental measurements of the thermodynamic state variables with mass turnover data allow prediction of whether compounds can be metabolized with energy delivery to microorganisms, or be thermodynamically stabilized under the respective redox and electron acceptor conditions. Energy balancing shows how much energy is actually used and retained in the soil, how much is emitted as heat, and how much may be stabilized due to endergonic turnover reactions. Thermodynamic stabilization should therefore be considered as basic stabilization process for organic compounds in soil.

ACS Style

Matthias Kästner; Thomas Maskow; Anja Miltner; Marcel Lorenz; Sören Thiele-Bruhn. Assessing energy fluxes and carbon use in soil as controlled by microbial activity - A thermodynamic perspective A perspective paper. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2024, 193 .

AMA Style

Matthias Kästner, Thomas Maskow, Anja Miltner, Marcel Lorenz, Sören Thiele-Bruhn. Assessing energy fluxes and carbon use in soil as controlled by microbial activity - A thermodynamic perspective A perspective paper. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 2024; 193 ():.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Matthias Kästner; Thomas Maskow; Anja Miltner; Marcel Lorenz; Sören Thiele-Bruhn. 2024. "Assessing energy fluxes and carbon use in soil as controlled by microbial activity - A thermodynamic perspective A perspective paper." Soil Biology and Biochemistry 193, no. : .

Journal Article
Published: 23 May 2024

Advancements in digitalisation with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) allow patients opportunities for improved autonomy, quality of life, and a potential increase in life expectancy. However, with the digital and functional practicalities of CIEDs, there exists also cyber safety issues with transferring wireless information. If a digital network were to be hacked, a CIED patient could experience both the loss of sensitive data and the loss of functional control of the CIED due to an unwelcome party. Moreover, if a CIED patient were to become victim of a cyber attack, which resulted in a serious or lethal event, and if this information were to become public, the trust in healthcare would be impacted and legal consequences could result. A cyber attack therefore poses not only a direct threat to the patient's health but also the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the CIED, and these cyber threats could be considered "patient-targeted threats." Informed consent is a key component of ethical care, legally concordant practice, and promoting patient-as-partner therapeutic relationships [1]. To date, there are no standardised guidelines for listing cybersecurity risks within the informed consent or for discussing them during the consent process. Providers are responsible for adhering to the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice, both in medical practice generally and the informed consent process specifically. At present, the decision to include cybersecurity risks is mainly left to the provider's discretion, who may also have limited cyber risk information. Without effective and in-depth communication about all possible cybersecurity risks during the consent process, CIED patients can be left unaware of the privacy and physical risks they possess by carrying such a device. Therefore, cyber risk factors should be covered within the patients' informed consent and reviewed on an ongoing basis as new risk information becomes available. By including cyber risk information in the informed consent process, patients are given the autonomy to make the best-informed decision.

ACS Style

Leanne N S Torgersen; Stefan M Schulz; Ricardo G Lugo; Stefan Sütterlin. Patient informed consent, ethical and legal considerations in the context of digital vulnerability with smart, cardiac implantable electronic devices. 2024, 3, e0000507 .

AMA Style

Leanne N S Torgersen, Stefan M Schulz, Ricardo G Lugo, Stefan Sütterlin. Patient informed consent, ethical and legal considerations in the context of digital vulnerability with smart, cardiac implantable electronic devices. . 2024; 3 (5):e0000507.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leanne N S Torgersen; Stefan M Schulz; Ricardo G Lugo; Stefan Sütterlin. 2024. "Patient informed consent, ethical and legal considerations in the context of digital vulnerability with smart, cardiac implantable electronic devices." 3, no. 5: e0000507.

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